Error Management Model
This is a practical Model often used in aviation for error management. The Error Management Model has three elements: AVOID, TRAP and RECOVER.
AVOID - Situations which induce error should be avoided. This is achieved by following Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), using standard callouts, etc. Workload should be managed to allow time to complete all procedures promptly and without rush.
TRAP - Errors are trapped by routine use of checklists, alerting systems and cross-checking. Flight crews should be vigilant at all times. If an error occurs, or is anticipated to occur, the detecting flight crew member shall state the problem immediately so that the error can be trapped.
RECOVER - If an error has occurred, the primary task of the flight crew is to ensure safe flight; if an undesired aircraft state has also occurred then the flight shall be returned to a safe altitude, speed and configuration before any other action take place.