Recovery Training in Simulator Improves Performance and Psychophysiological State of Pilots

Recovery Training in Simulator Improves Performance and Psychophysiological State of Pilots


Pilot’s incapability of recover from unusual attitudes to straight-and-level flight has led to many major accidents during the past decades. Therefore, capabilities of recover from unusual attitudes , stalls and spins is an important achievement to be accomplished in general aviation. Koglbauer ,Kallus , Braunstingl and Boucsein came together and did a research to find out a feasibility of anticipative training in simulator and real flights.

Study Scope

The research successfully recruited pilots with private license for flight according to Visual Flight Rules. The study required 2 days to record the evaluation of initial flight test and final flight test.First day being the pilots being trained by the instructor in the simulator with an additional of real flight trial and did the final test on the next day. The final test will require pilots to recover the aircraft from unusual attitudes.The results in the final test will show positive training outcome to improve performance ,workload and positive emotion of the pilot.


The study compromises 29 male pilots with less than 450 hours of flight experience. The pilots will then being divided into two groups ; experimental group (16 pilots) and control group (13 pilots). Experimental group was given the opportunity to attend additional training trials in simulator and a guide from instructor while control group,for ethical reason, was offered a training only after the experiment was terminated.


A multilevel method was used in the evaluation of simulator training effects.



Illustration 1 shows that pilots in experimental group improved in the workload and demand analyses.Overall ,there have been an increase of score from initial flight to final test flight High significance positive changes can obtained from performance and effort. Effects on frustration , mental demand and physical demand reached moderate significance level.Demands of mental and physical has lighten fro the pilots and the frustration they have is lesser than the control group.

Illustration 1 :Result of Workload Measured
Group Experimental Group Experimental Group Interpretation
Flight Time IF T IF T p value
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Performance 1.45(0.39) 2.75(0.36) 2.31(0.44) 2.48(0.41) 0.05 Highly Significance
Effort 0.16(0.5) -0.33(0.56) 1.78(0.57) 0.98(0.64) 0.046 Highly Significance
Frustration -1.18(0.62) -2.33(0.58) -3.03(0.7) -3.55(0.65) 0.082 Significant
Mental Demand 0.52(0.52) -0.25(0.62) 2.05(0.59) 1.73(0.67) 0.09 Significant
Physical Demand -0.33(0.53) -0.5(0.58) -0.3(0.6) 0.3(0.65) 0.092 Significant
Score Ranging from -5 (Very Low) to 5 (Very High)
IF (Initial Flight) , T (Test Flight)  

Positive Emotion

Results of positive emotion is conducted by PANAS (Positive And Negative Affect Schedule) are shown in illustration 2. Experimental pilot's excitement , strength,pride and enthusiasm has improved significantly ( pride improved the most). Attentions of experimental group has moderately improved. However it was higher rated in control group than in the experimental group. This is partially due to the pilot knowing they had a lack of training in advance. Thus the control group's pilot pays more attention the flight test.

Illustration 2 :Result of Positive Emotion Measured
Group Experimental Group Control Group Interpretation
Flight Time IF T IF T p value
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Excitement 2.00(1.13) 2.60(0.98) 2.64(0.74) 3.00(0.87) 0.05 Highly Improved
Strength 1.53(0.99) 1.93(1.22) 2.21(0.89) 2.29(0.82) 0.04 Highly Improved
Pride 1.40(1.18) 2.33(0.97) 1.29(1.13) 1.79(0.98) 0.0001 Extremely improved
Enthusiasm 2.40(1.24) 2.87(0.91) 2.93(0.99) 3.43(0.75) 0.08 Moderately Improved
Attention 2.73(0.96) 2.73(1.10) 3.36(0.49) 3.21(0.69) 0.07 Moderately Improved
Score Ranging from 1 (Very Slightly) to 5 (Extremely)
IF (Initial Flight) , T (Test Flight)  


Based on the outcome of the study , researcher conclude that the training applied in simulator and real flight can be conducted in the flight instruction practise. The training has the potential to allow pilot confidently performing correct flight maneuvers and recover from the aircraft's unusual attitudes. The goal of this research is to provide a better advancement of flight safety. It will enable the pilots to realize and stay way from entry of dangerous flight maneuver and handle serious situations that cannot be prevented.

1. Ioana Koglbauer , K.Wolfgang Kallus , Reinhard Braunstinl , and Wolfram Boucsein (2011). Recovery Training in Simulator Improves Performance and Psychophysiological State of Pilots During Simulated and Real Visual Flight Rules Flight (2011) . Retrieved from The International Journal of Aviation Psychology Vol 21 Issue 4

Contributors to this page


Yuwanky Wartison

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