Table of Contents
Fatigue as one of human factors contributes a lot on aviation accidents. The original article from Bourgeois-Bougrine, Carbon, Gounelle, Mollard, and Coblentz indicates the research of perception of fatigue in short-haul and long-haul flight in 5 aspects. This article provides usable findings to the reader by summarizing and reanalyzing the results from the original article.
The result contained 5 aspects information. They are demographic information, level of fatigue, causes of fatigue, manifestations of fatigue, and coping of fatigue.
739 questionnaires were returned from the total of 3436 questionnaires. The sample of 739 pilots comprised:
|Men vs. Women||702(95%) vs. 37(5%)|
|Captains vs. First Officers||340(46%) vs. 399(54%)|
|LHF vs. SHF||532(72%) vs 207(28%)|
Level of fatigue
- As a major predictor of fatigue, duty time cannot be explained independently from other contributory causes.
Causes of fatigue
The 3 main causes of fatigue were analyzed from 952 examples of schedules.
- night flights
- successive early wake-ups
- jet lag
- long duty periods
3.Density verbal exchange
|Long-haul flights||Short-haul flights|
|causes||mean(SD)||high and very high scores||mean(SD)||high and very high scores|
|density verbal exchange||3.17(0.95)||38.9%||3.20(1.03)||41.5%|
The rating is 5-point scale. 5=very high impact, 4= high impact, 3=medium impact, 2=small impact, 1=no impact
Manifestations of fatigue
There were 1364 manifestations of fatigue reported by pilots. They could be classified into 3 main types of manifestations of fatigue.
1.Sleep-loss related manifestations
2.Mental related manifestations
- small mistakes(calculation, interpretation,…).
- increase in response times
3.Verbal related manifestations
- reduction of social communications and bad message reception
1909 strategies which could be classified into 3 main categories.
- rest and sleep management
- activity management
The effects of work schedules of pilots were reflected by this research: jet lag, night flight, and successive early wake-ups. Both of LHF and SHF pilots considered sleep deprivation as the most important cause of fatigue. In order to reduce the rate of aviation accidents, it is necessary to consider aircrew scheduling rules, duty time limitations to prevent additional fatigue. Pilots need to find out the most suitable method for themselves to cope fatigue.
Exploratory research through questionnaires into the perception of fatigue on LHF and SHF pilots from airlines.
3436 questionnaires were distributed to pilots through 4 airlines, 739 were returned. The average age of respondents were 34-50yr. And the average flying experience was 14yr. The sample displayed a good range of age and flying experiences.
Descriptive statistics. The original data contained mean which is used to measure central tendency and standard deviation which shows how much variation or dispersion from the average.
1. Bourgeois-Bougrine, S., Carbon, P., Gounelle, C., Mollard, R., & Coblentz A. (2003). Perceived fatigue for short- and long-haul flights: A survey of 739 airline pilots.Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, volume 74, number 10, pages 1072-1077.