Line operation safety audit (LOSA) is a safety management tool that was developed in the aviation industry mainly to collect data by observation on managing threats and errors occurring in flight operations, (ICAO, 2002). This was done because of the high rate of human error caused by single-pilot during complex flight operations leading to high number of crashes caused by single-pilot. LOSA was also developed to assist crew resource management (CRM) practice in order to reduce human errors in complex flight operations, (Helmreich et al, 2002).
BENEFITS OF LINE OPERATION SAFETY AUDIT (LOSA) IN AVIATION
The LOSA provides the airline industry with operational information’s about their strength and weaknesses by assisting in-flight crew performance during normal flights. Most airlines that use LOSA suggested that LOSA has increase safety within the airline industry through information’s it provided about their weaknesses and things successfully done by crew during flight hence, training's and safety initiatives are taken into consideration and are made more effective, flight crews and flight operational managers readily follow TEM concept rather than aiming to eliminate error with their flight knowledge of experience (Laurie, et al, 2012).
OBSERVED THREATS AND ERRORS OF SINGLE-PILOTS USING (LOSA)
TABLE.1 CREW EXPERIENCE WITHIN THE COMPANY
|Sample||Actual Recordings||Number of flights||Mean||Interpretation|
Table one (1). Shows that, overall, crew experience within the airline industry were LOSA was carried out in assisting in-flight crew during normal flights. From the table the number of hours of flight and years of work shows that crews are well experienced, had experience in flying within the industry in single-pilot aircraft.
TABLE. 2 THREATS AND ERRORS OBSERVED DURING FLIGHT
|Sample||Actual Recordings||Number of Flights||Mean||Interpretation|
|Undesired A/C States||6||14||0.43||Less Important|
Table two (2). Shows the overall performance of experience single-pilot observed during normal flight using the LOSA methodology and seen clearly that experience pilots regardless of the number of hours of flight and years of work they do associated with threats, errors and undesired aircraft states when observed during normal flight.
With the use of LOSA in observing in-flight crew during normal flight, threats observed normally occurred during predeparture/taxi-out, take-off/ climbing, cruise, descent/ approach/ landing, and taxi in, (Laurie et al, 2012). These threats observed where grouped into five category and they are:-
1. Air Traffic Control
2. Airport Conditions
3. Weather Conditions
4. Operational Pressures
5. Environmental Operational Pressure
All these threats observed, the highest occurs normally during departure/ taxi-out and second with descending/ approach and landing and non with taxi in. This was because of high workload particularly with changed task or destination during flight, checklist are carried from memory due to high work load and several errors regarding pilot heads-down updating systems while taxing out, (Laurie, 2012).
Errors observed during normal flights occur during international noncompliance, aircraft handling, procedural and communication. In multi-crew operations pilot are required to voice out every actions, briefings and intentions carried out, for example carrying out the checklist in preventing rooms for error. However, with single-pilot operation this is not a requirement therefore, this increases the risk of errors which potentially affects safety. Also it was figured that single-pilots who are well experience in certain aircraft types tend to carried out important procedures from their memories and later used checklist to ensure a complete check is done, this also increases the risk of error as checklist is not followed (Helmreich et al, 2001).
Regarding threats and errors found using the LOSA methodology by observing single-pilots during normal flight, safety measures were taken into areas where most threats are observed such as departure/ tax-out, Automation Management, descending/ approach and landing. However, most pilots also raise their concern about certain things as well, they comment about standard operating procedures (SOP’s) to be made more specific, poorly located database units which result in heads down during taxing, short notices regarding change of destination which concerns them mostly during night flights, packing of aircraft and taxing space are too small which require high maneuvering and lastly the workload and amount of information regarding flight were so high, (Laurie, 2012). Therefore, their concerns were made to be more aware of in the aviation industry, external agencies and managers then considered the need of safety hence, possible changes were made to further improvement into areas of most concern by single-pilots to improve safety of single-pilots.
1. Laurie, E et al., (2012). Developing a single-pilot line operations safety audit. Journal aviation psychology and applied human factor. 2(2) 49-61.
2. International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO). (2002). Line operation safety audit (LOSA). (ICAO Document 9803, AN/761). Montreal. Author.
3. Helmreich, R. L., Klinect, J. R., Wilhelm, J. A., Tesmer, B., Gunther, D., Thomas, R., Maurino, D. (2002). Line operation safety audit (LOSA). (Doc 9803-AN/76). Montreal: International Civil Aviation Organisation.
4. Helmreich, R. (2001). The line operations safety audit (LOSA) and safety culture. The University of Texas Human Factors Research Project. LOSA summit, Cathay City, Hong Kong.
Authors / Editors
- Nimrod Siosi