They support the weight of the aircraft. The structure of the wings contribute to how flexible and how fast the planes are
Below are some examples of planes with different type of wings:
Consists of two main wings. It can flymore than 200 kts in level flight (wikipedia, 2009). These planes were quite common in the early 1900's. Although the design allows planes to fly faster, the rigid structure is highly resistant which makes it less flexible when turning.
2. Braced Monoplane.
It is used on lower speed aircraft. The main distinction in types of monoplane is where the wings attach to the fuselage:
* low-wing, the wing lower surface is level with (or below) the bottom of the fuselage
* mid-wing, the wing is mounted mid-way up the fuselage
* shoulder-wing, the wing is mounted above the fuselage middle
* high-wing, the wing upper surface is level with or above the top of the fuselage
This type of planes were quite common on military aircraft during World War.
3. Cantilever Monoplane.
The wings have to absorb the stresses and strains of lift and drag in flight, and their own weight when on the ground.
Tail Units or Stabilising Surfaces
Tail unit is also known as empennage. It shape varies, such as:
a) T-Tail. This shaped is believed to give smoother flow of aircraft, and easier for pilots to adjust the pitch control (wikiepedia)
b) H-Tail. It is advantageous to be used for big carriers (flighglobal, n.d.)
c) V-Tail. It is lighter but it is complex to control
Control Surfaces on the wing
2) Outboard Aileron
3) Inboard Aileron
4) Canoe Fairings
5) Kruger Flaps
7) Inboard Flaps
8) Outboard Flaps
Flap can increase maximum life of the wing by up to 50%. Effects of flap will be influenced by the type of flap, the position of the wing and the position of the tailplane.
Airframe Loads and Combination Loadings.
The Video below demonstrates the types of loads applied to airframes structure.
The Maximum load differs from one plane to another. Overload could be fatal and might lead to an accident
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wikipedia (2009). Biplane