SHELL-T model of human factors

SHELL-Team is based on modelling team performance and considers several interacting SHELL units (such as 3 cockpit crewmembers and an air traffic controller) where each unit shares certain components with other units according to the working environment/situation and task requirements (Cacciabue, 2004 1).

For example, a SHELL-T model might convey that each flight crew member has hardware to interact with, all crew members share the same environment and all crew members communicate with each other and the air traffic controller for performance of the flying task. However, the SHELL-T model may also suggest that the pilot and co-pilot share different software (procedures and training) to the software associated with the flight engineer (the third crew member). Similarly, the SHELL-T model may convey that the air traffic controller communicates with crew members but does not share any other elements of the SHELL-T unit (operates in a different working context, with different rules and regulations and with different control system hardware) (Cacciabue, 2004 1).

1. Cacciabue, P.C. (2004). Guide to applying human factors methods: Human error and accident management in safety critical systems. London: Springer-Verlag London Ltd, 2004.

Want to know more?

AviationKnowledge - Shell Model of Human Factors
This AviationKnowledge page provides a good overview of the original SHELL Model
AviationKnowledge - Schell Model of Human Factors
This AviationKnowledge page provides information on the SCHELL Model.

Contributors to this page

Authors / Editors


Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License