SCHELL model

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The SCHELL model adds a cultural component to the original SHELL model, represented by the letter C in the name of the model. The cultural element surrounds the liveware component with which other aviation system components interact (Keightley, 2004 1). Although the cultural dimension is considered as part of the liveware and environment components of the SHELL model, Crew Resource Management and increases in airline mergers and internationalisation emphasise the importance of explicitly recognising and addressing culture and cross-cultural issues (Keightley, 2004 1).

The liveware-culture interface depicted in the modified SCHELL model provides interpretative differences for individual behaviour and the values and expectations that affect the interfaces between the human operator and aviation system components (Keightley, 2004 1).

1. Keightley, A. (2004). 190.216 human factors study guide. Palmerston North: Massey University, 2004.

Want to know more?

AviationKnowledge - Shell Model of Human Factors
This AviationKnowledge page provides a good overview of the original SHELL Model
AviationKnowledge - Shell-T Model of Human Factors
This AviationKnowledge page provides information on the SHELL-T Model.

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