Multi-Crew Pilot License (3)

The Human Factors Analysis

Hours of Experience versus Competency

The ICAO standard for the Multi-Crew Pilot License (MPL) specifies 240 hours as the minimum number of flight hours. The system of PPL, CPL & MEIR requires 200 plus hours and further years of hour-building, which adds up to more than 500 hours, if the pilot does not get cadet pilot training.

Real Aircraft versus Simulators

MPL uses a mixture of both types of training; real aircraft and simulators. The current system mostly uses the actual aircraft. MPL uses single and twin engine aircraft simulators with advanced aircraft glass cockpits and the current system generally uses older single-engine aircrafts with mostly clock-dial instruments.

Stick and Rudder Skills versus Manager of Systems

The MPL focuses on managing modern systems onboard an aircraft. The current system trains pilots mainly on stick and rudder skills. Both are crucially important in an emergency situation.

Efficient and Safe way of Training Pilots

The MPL ensures that student pilots are placed away from harm and danger, by carrying out training in simulators. The pilots trained under the MPL syllabus, undergo relevant training, with regards to aircraft and airline specifics. The current system focuses on solo-flying, single-engines and usually in the old clock-dial instrument cockpits.

CRM, TEM and MCC are core of the MPL Syllabus

All trainee pilots are taught Crew Resource Management, Threat and Error Management and Multi-Crew Cooperation at the early stages of training. The pilots are trained as a crew pair with an experienced instructor.

Could MPL become a latent failure in the system?

The question that remains is whether the co-pilots certified with MPL, be ready to handle emergency situations when they reach the Captain’s position in the cockpit.

1. I.F.A.L.P.A and E.C.A. (2005, December 20). ECA - IFALPA POSITON ON THE ICAO FCLTP TRANSPOSITION INTO JAR FCL. Retrieved August 25, 2010, from
2. ICAO. (n.d.). Multi-Crew Pilot Licence (MPL). Retrieved August 20, 2010, from FAQs:
3. Sutton, O. (2005). Shortcut or Fast Track? Air Transport World , 51.

Want to know more?

Multi-Crew Pilot License (4)

Contributors to this page




Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License