LOSA methodology

Key steps to set up a LOSA

(Picture embeded from ICAO on 23 August 2009)

Ten operating characteristics of LOSA

In the LOSA process, observation reactivity is the most possible concern of LOSA data quality, which occurs when pilots alter their normal behaviours because of an observer's in the cockpit, this can defeat the purpose of LOSA as an accurate measure of Threat and Error Management (TEM) performance in normal operations.therefore, the below ten characteristics deal solely with this issue, without these characteristics, it is not a LOSA. (Klinect, 20051)

1. Jump-seat observations during normal flight- LOSA observations must be collected on regular routine flights.
2. Joint management/pilot sponsorship- When considering whether to conduct a LOSA, airline management must get a positive answer from the pilots union, otherwise the project should not be initiated until endorsement is obtained.
3. Voluntary crew participation-Before conducting LOSA observations, observers must first ask the flight crew’s permission to be observed. The observer cannot question the crew’s declines.
4. De-identified, confidential, and non-disciplinary data collection- No names, flight numbers, dates, or any information that can identify a crew or individual will be recorded in order to assure the credibility of the entire safety program.
5. Target observation instrument- LOSA observation form or data collection instrument which inlcude sufficient details to allow others to understand the flight and all its events in full context.
6. Trained and calibrated observers- The observers must be respected and trusted within the airline, also trained and calibrated in the LOSA methodology. Selection and training for observers will ensure the observations conducted in the most standardized manner.
7. Trusted data repository- The trusted data collection site can be both in-house or off-site to ensure that no individual observations will be misplaced or improperly disseminated through the airline.
8. Data verification- Quality data management procedures and consistency checks are done at data-verification roundtables according to the airline’s standards and manuals, before any statistical analysis is performed.
9. Targets for enhancement- The final product of a LOSA is the data-derived targets for enhancement based on emergent patterns in the data. The airline develop action plan and implement change strategies accordingly.
10. Feedback results to the line pilots- Ailine must communicate the result back to the line pilots for both the audit and the management’s plan for improvement. (ICAO, 20022)

1. Klinect, J. (2005). Line Operations Safety Audit: A Cockpit Observation Methodology for Monitoring Commercial Airline Safety Performance. The University of Texas, Austin.
2. ICAO. (2002). Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA) (1st.ed.). International Civil Aviation Organization.

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ICAO LOSA manual

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