Cross-checking involves a repeated secondary review and confirmation of task outcomes.
Human Factors Benefits
1) Ensure that the inputs or outcomes are as desired/intended.
2) Elimination of errors, specifically human errors (misinterpretation, memory slip, incorrect decision making) as it is common for human beings to commit errors without being aware of them especially during emergencies when there is time pressure to complete a task.
Flight Crews Context (Especially in a multi crew operation )
In a 2 crews scenario, which is common these days, the Pilot-Not-Flying (PNF) should double check and confirm the actions of the Pilot-In-Command/Pilot Flying (PIC/PF).
The items/actions to be double checked and confirmed are:
1) Aircraft performance (V1, Vr, V2, Approach airspeed, landing airspeed, fuel+passenger+cargo weight and balance, load and trim calculations)
2) Air Traffic Control (ATC) instructions
3) Aircraft flight deck instrument settings such as altitude pressure, flying altitude cleared by ATC, radio frequency, flight path heading
4) Obligations to Stabilised Approach rules and Aeroplane Flight Manual (AFM) restrictions
Cross-checking flight crew inputs/actions following instruction issuance
- Check and confirm flight crew inputs/actions is as instructed by referring constantly to radar and visual monitoring
- Pay additional focus to aircraft ground movements near runway hotspots (taxiways that cross runways, intersecting runways simultaneously in use, missed approach, go-around, intersecting flight paths)
Cross-checking performance inputs of co-workers
- Share workload with colleagues if one is incapable of handling a particular amount of workload or to assist colleagues with heavy workload if he/she has the excessive work handling capacity.
- To pay additional attention:
1) when handling over duties, especially when in charge of a busy airspace or heavy traffic to colleagues,
2) New inexperienced colleagues
3) When dealing with situations that demand dedication of higher attention, such as an emergency, excessively high traffic flow, lack of manpower.
EUROCONTROL. (2010). Cross-checking process. Retrieved 12 September 2010, from http://www.skybrary.aero/index.php/Cross-checking_Process.