According to the research of Kraus and Koch (2006 2), different airport types can be distinguished concerning their traffic structure, which can broadly be separated into O-D Airports (Origin-Destination Airports), O-D-Airports with first hub characteristics and Hub Airports. The main characteristics will be described in the following section, using a specific airport as example. The airports are also characterized by diverse development stages with the O-D Airport being the least developed airport type:
An O-D Airport is ensuring the mobility of the airport region without a hub structure and transfer passengers. Peaks in the morning and evening can be observed due to the departures and arrival of the home carrier’s overnight parked aircraft (e.g. Tunis-Carthage Airport - TUN) (Kraus and Koch, 2006 2).
2. O-D-Airport with first hub characteristics
One home carrier accounts for a significant share of operations at the airport but does not inhabit a dominant position. This carrier is responsible for one peak in the morning, when all planes leave the airport at the same time and partly for a second one in the evening when planes return. The second peak however is also build from other airlines arriving or departing (e.g. Johannesburg International Airport - JNB) (Kraus and Koch, 2006 2).
3. Hub Airports
Resulting from the hub and spoke operations (refer to Hub-and-Spoke Operations for more details), at the hub airport, passengers originating from a spoke airport transfer to their connecting flight. To offer a high number of possible connections, the flight schedule at the hub is organized in daily waves of incoming and outgoing flights, in which ideally all incoming flights connect to all outgoing flights (Bootsma, 1997 1).
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- Hub Airports
- Different hub airport types and incentives airports and airlines have to operate a hub will be explained